12TH GRADE

The senior year challenges students to engage in deeper analysis of ideas and to show high levels of independent responsibility. While Seniors are tackling a demanding course load, they will also be applying to colleges and universities and planning their graduation. Juggling these various tasks takes strong organizational skills and maturity. In the fall many students will be taking the SAT’s for the second time. They will be asking teachers for letters of recommendation and writing the required essays to send in with their college application forms. Courses this year will require significant student participation, research writing, oral presentations and essay writing as teachers prepare students for the rigors of higher education.

Math:

The 9th – 12th Grade math program features interwoven strands of algebra and functions, statistics and probability, geometry and trigonometry, and discrete mathematics. In the 12th Grade program we develop students understanding of the fundamental concepts underlying calculus and their applications. Students develop an understanding of two-dimensional vectors and their use in modeling linear, circular, and other nonlinear motion as well as a deeper understanding of logarithmic functions and their use in modeling and analyzing problem situations and data patterns. Students extend their ability to count systematically and solve enumeration problems, and develop understanding of, and ability to do, proof by mathematical induction. The program also extends students understanding of the binomial distribution, including its exact construction and how the normal approximation to the binomial distribution is used in statistical inference to test a single proportion and to compare two treatments in an experiment. It extends students ability to use polynomial and rational functions to represent and solve problems from real-world situations while focusing on symbolic and graphical patterns. Students will extend their ability to manipulate symbolic representations of exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; to solve exponential and logarithmic equations; to prove or disprove that two trigonometric expressions are identical and to solve trigonometric equations; to reason with complex numbers and complex number operations using geometric representations and to find roots of complex numbers.

Language Arts and Lenguaje:

The twelfth grade language arts course of study is for young adults who are preparing to enter the world of higher education. In 12th Grade, students study the history of English Literature, looking at the various literary movements and their historical setting. Vocabulary study focuses on word etymologies, and the incendiary nature of gender biased and racially /religiously /culturally biased language. Reading continues to be taught, emphasizing literary analysis/criticism, historical commentary, political statements, and culturally and historically significant literary works. Writing to learn emphasizes cause and effect, analysis and refutation of opposing opinions, and important text connections. Revision and editing in written work are further refined, and inquiry becomes more meaningful as students approach graduation from school and entrance into the adult phase of their lives.

Science:

Drawing on what students have learned in the chemistry, physics and biology courses of 9-11th grade, and strongly connected to aspects of every-day life, the 12th Grade Science course focuses on 3 main topics: Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Astrophysics.

Organic Chemistry builds on concepts such as valence electrons, ionic and covalent bonds, from 10th grade chemistry. Because many of the compounds we use daily are organic, from shampoo to gasoline and plastic, Organic Chemistry is very relevant to students’ lives, making it easy for them to relate to.

The Biochemistry covered in the course is not only connected to Organic Chemistry and 9th grade Biology of the cell and the human body systems, but also covers nutrition, which again, strongly relates to the students lives and health.

Finally, Astrophysics, a growing field with exciting discoveries rapidly being made into the origins of our universe, can be strongly connected to 11th grade physics.

The links that can easily be made to other high school years of science provide an excellent opportunity for the teacher to revise throughout the year, concepts that will be covered in the national examinations at the end of the year.

Social Studies:

In the 12th Grade History program students will study the Cold War and the break up of the Soviet Union. They will study current global events and compare them to events leading up to the Cold War. Students will give a general geopolitical overview of modern day Russia and compare it to the Soviet Union. They will study the Civil Rights movement of the 60’s, the end of Colonization and the Counterculture. They will look at how the student activist movements of the 1960’s are connected to the civil rights activists and the Civil Rights Act. Students will finish the year with a look at contemporary history and international relations. They will debate whether there is a one-size-fits-all type of government that is perfect for all countries. They will study  the modern regimes that most impact the international community (United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Free Trade Agreements, the International Criminal Court etc.)

In Geography students will study the changes in country borders due to their changing political status. They will identify Russia and the countries which formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union. They will study the areas of the world which were involved in the cold war (North and South Vietnam, Cuba, Korea, Afghanistan, etc.)

In economy students will define “free trade”, explaining the theories behind the free trade agreement and how it developed. They will debate the pros and cons of the free trade agreement and the impact it has on developing countries. They will also study the pros and cons of “globilization”, its impact on world economy and on employment.

In civics the 12th grade will study the development and rise of communism. They will explain the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Students will debate what is and is not free speech and why it is important to democracy. They will also define the right to assembly and its importance. They will study and debate the pros and cons of various types of governing systems (presidential republics, parliamentary republics, constitutional monarchies, absolute monarchies, theocracies, one-party states, military juntas.) Finally, they will compare and contrast Dominican and American political and electoral systems

Sociales:

In 12th grade sociales, we review Dominican history from the nineteenth century up to the present time, making connections to current events. We pay special attention to the period of dictatorship and the transition to democracy. We study the government of Juan Bosch, the civil war of 1965 and Balaguer’s governments. The historical facts will be analyzed in a critical way enabling the students to be able to search for possible answers and solutions for our current problems.

Students will review Dominican geography, analyzing the key role it plays in history. They will also relate current economic activities with the reality of our geography.

In economics, we will study the main economic activities of the country, the development of service industries and their importance to the Dominican Republic. Basic concepts such as law of supply and demand, the capitalist system, and causes and consequences of the recent economic crisis will be studied.

In civics, students will be guided by questions such as what is sovereignty, what instruments does the state use for its organization? We will analyze the constitution, its importance, its reform, and how citizens can use different mechanisms to preserve our democracy and defend our human rights.

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